Crisis management

1- post one Wea

lAdvancement in technology has made it easy to trace information despite decades passing after events taking place. Data storage is beneficial since people can use the media to confirm what happened in history. But on the other hand, information from post-disaster events can result in psychosocial and psychological harm to the public members. The following paragraphs will explain how the media the affects psychosocial consequences of a disaster and crisis management.

The main consequences of a disaster include fear, desensitization and increased aggression that stresses human beings, and later they become victims of trauma. Research has indicated that children can suffer trauma due to watching past disasters from the media. By observing what happened in the past, the kids can develop fear and become antisocial (Hopwood & Schutte, 2017). For instance, children who view information from the media about what happened during the attack of September 1th 2001, can become victims of trauma. Due to anger developed due to watching the media information, the kid can build heat towards the community where the terrorist coma from. The heat will develop to ant socialization between the kid and the other community.

Similarly, the media can be accused to be a result of the community sensitization to trauma. That is because previous creates videos that are emotional arousing the previous experiences and giving them to the new generation. When people are reminded of the experiences they encountered in the past, they develop bitterness. People who are bitter about disasters that happened in the past develop antisocial behaviors, and they tend to stay away from others (Hopwood & Schutte, 2017). The antisocial come traumatized as they remember the pain they went through. Therefore, the media should be cautious about the type of videos they broadcast and put preventive measures to prevent civilians from accessing past videos that can cause harm to them.

Social Media positively and negatively impact the management of crisis through the Listening function, which gives voice to those who are voiceless. Through social media, the public members can air their challenges concerning a specific crisis to their fellow citizens and the well-wishers. That can form a platform where the citizens can share ideas of how to deal with their situation and end the problem (Alexander, 2014). On the other hand, the same social media can be used negatively by the public members to send untrue viral information about the crisis, which results in disinformation to the well-wishers and the government. Untrue information results in damages and bitterness to the people affected by the crisis. For instance, during quarantine, people used social media platforms to communicate, share ideas and ask for help where they were stuck, which reduced trauma and mental challenges to many. Also, the same social media was used to send false statistics of individuals who succumbed due to COVID 19, which sent the majority into fear and anxiety. The anxiety and incorrect information send the crisis management out of control.

The best way to stop misinformation and rumors on social media platforms prior, during and after a disaster is by setting an emergency communication center. The communication center should be located in the local community, which will monitor information circulating in the social media closely and respond to it immediately (Alexander, 2014). That will assist in explaining unverified and incorrect information. Therefore, suppose the rumor aimed to create sense in uncertain situations so that people can react to possible threats there will be a provision of verified information on time hence successful management of the crisis. The provision of verified data and voluntary citizens through social media will prevent further traumatization.


Hopwood, T. L., & Schutte, N. S. (2017). Psychological outcomes in reaction to media exposure to disasters and large-scale violence: A meta-analysis. Psychology of Violence7(2), 316.

Alexander, D. E. (2014). Social media in disaster risk reduction and crisis management. Science and engineering ethics20(3), 717-733.

2- PSot 2 Daivd

  1. Discuss the ways that the changing media landscape is affecting the psychosocial consequences of disaster, for better or for worse.

As a photography student, the theme of the mass-produced image upon the viewer’s psyche is an old debate. Sontag (1973) suggests that state control comes from the printed word and images from the media in her writings. Alexander (2014) recognizes the traditional one-sided authority of the news channel and how social media short-circuits this relationship, allowing the user to go around “information gatekeepers.” I think Haiti serves as an example for the benefit of redistributing the power balance, with the oft-referenced crowdsourcing efforts to build a street map and close communication gaps between humanitarian actors.

It is difficult for me to confidently state how the changing media landscape is affecting disasters because I have the impression we are still in a stage of evolution with social media. This week’s assigned reading, all within the academic timeframe of ten years, offered views on social media that I considered outdated. The smartphone in my hand today offers me a seamless parade of short headlines and high-definition images, a feature that is continually refined. I believe Quarantelli was correct in his argument that social media will have ramifications on par with the printing press, but I don’t think we have reached the end-product yet (Alexander, 2014).

Hopwood and Schutte’s conclusion that exposure to disaster and violence through media have negative mental health consequences seems dubious to me. While their study examined the data for a publication bias (more studies with negative findings are published more than ones with positive findings), I think there was an overlooked criticism of the media itself and its propensity to report on tragedy. The newsroom mantra is “if it bleeds, it leads Sontag, 2003).” It is a classic feature of photography to capture the scene that is removed from your own reality (Sontag, 1973).

  1. Reflect on the ways that media (social or otherwise) positively and negatively impact crisis management. How can we quell the rumor mill? How do we combat further traumatization?

I came away from the reading with the perception that social media is a benefit to crisis management in the moment of action, e.g., post-earthquake Haiti, mass evacuation notice, family reunification, but become stagnant and potentially dangerous the further we get away from an event i.e., Sandy Hook deniers, 9/11 conspiracy. I am of the opinion that people have become savvier in their assessment of web information along and search results. At Alexander’s suggestion, I performed a search for “earthquake prediction” and only came up with the official USGS site (though I may be trapped in my unseen user algorithm).

Lachlan, Hutter, and Gilbert concluded that public health officials should be less concerned with “echo chambers” and focused on delivering information to people who only consume few news sources (2021). As emergency managers, I feel we should keep the tenets of crisis communication, ensuring we give timely, accurate, honest updates. I would propose that media should always be made a partner in community preparedness. In the partnership, we can discuss how event footage is displayed and formatted to limit the re-traumatization of those affected.

Attached is a passage from Sontags Regarding the Pain of Others that I felt is relevant to our earlier class discussions, pp19-20:

“Something becomes real—to those who are elsewhere, following it as “news”—by being photographed. But a catastrophe that is experienced will often seem eerily like its representation. The attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, was described as “unreal,” “surreal,” “like a movie,” in many of the first accounts of those who escaped from the towers or watched from nearby. (After four decades of big-budget Hollywood disaster films, “It felt like a movie” seems to have displaced the way survivors of a catastrophe used to express the short-term unassimilability of what they had gone through: “It felt like a dream.”)”


Alexander, D. (2014). Social media in disaster risk reduction and crisis management. Science and Engineering Ethics, 20, 717-733.

Hopwood, T.L., & Schutte, N.S. (2016). Psychological outcomes in reaction to media exposure to disasters and large-scale violence: A meta-analysis. Psychology of Violence, 7(2), 316-327.

Lachlan, K.A., Hutter, E., & Gilbert, C. (2021). COVID-19 echo chambers: Examining the impact of conservative and liberal news sources on risk perception and response.

Health Security, 19(1), 21-30. (Links to an external site.)

Sontag, S. (1973). On photography. New York, NY: Holtzbrink Publishers.

Sontag, S. (2003). Regarding the pain of others. New York, NY: Picador.

3 Psot 3 Zawanah1.

Discuss the ways that the changing media landscape is affecting the psychosocial consequences of disaster, for better or worse.

As is well known for decades, many people are highly resillent during and after disaster, in many instances, they save the day by helping themselves and others. But relatively there are other new phenomenon called social media that affect individual self resillence by looking into information gethering and dissemination of collaborative problem-solving and coping. In today world, when disaster strikes, people looked for information. Nowadays, they look towards online community which offer the platforms for sharing information in the form of text, audio, pictures, or video and interactive communication between individual and group.

However, vulnerability are additional social factors that have to do with country’s economic situation to the extent of injustice, poverty and social inequality. What is worsening are the irresponsible contributors within the social media press who in returned exaggerating fake news.

2. Reflect on the way that media (social or otherwise) positively or negatively impact crisis management. How can we quell the rumor Mill? How do we combat further traumatization

The COVID-19 have put health authorities around the world on a high alert, in a severe public health emergency like this, media plays an important role in mobilizing community, inproviding authoritative information and emotional support. This may help isolate individuals feel connected in allocating their resources.

On one hand, the interactive nature of news media may have both positive and negative psychological impact in the minds of who are disaster victims, especially witnessing or seeing the act of conventional terrorism has lead to fear or anxiety through traumatization. To quell this rumor mill, the media must be very accurate when posting information. In view of this reading, extensive media coverage have helped survivors manage their feelings and emotional relief. In contrast, negative media coverage expressed may impact viewers negatively.

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