Figurative language

Instructions

PURPOSE

The exercises in this assignment provide an opportunity for you to see if you have mastered the basics of writing clearly, concisely, and correctly.

INSTRUCTIONS

Open a new Word document and save it as M2A4 Ch 3 Exercises + YOUR NAME.

Please complete Exercises 3.2 through 3.5 on pp. 79-81.

Exercise 3.2: Key each sentence in active voice. At the end of the sentences, please write a paragraph explaining why some of the sentences are more effective using passive voice.

Exercise 3.3: Key each sentence with your corrections.

Exercise 3.4: Key the sentences using parallel structure.

Exercise 3.5: Number your responses to match the questions. Use complete sentences in your responses and answer all parts of all questions.

Refer to the following resources as needed:

Examples in Chapter

Purdue’s OWL Writing Lab at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/1/5/ .

CHAPTER 3– PAGES 79-81 from Book

3. Stated and implied purposes (if different from stated purpose). 4. Rhetorical strategies and techniques, such as use of any of the following (provide examples from the speech or writing): a. Figurative language (similes, metaphors, symbols, imagery). b. Appeals (to emotions, logic, ethos). c. Logical fallacies. 5. Style (provide examples from the speech or writing) a. Clarity and conciseness. b. Use of language, word choices (diction). c. Passive or active voice. d. Simple or complex sentences; short or long sentences. 6. Visual strategies and tactics: a. Format (layout, headings, paragraph length, fonts, etc.). b. Use of images (photos, graphs, diagrams, etc.). 7. Oral strategies and tactics (for speeches, of course): a. Music. b. Volume. c. Speech patterns (articulation, intonation, emphasis). d. Other sound effects. The objective of this assignment is to help you appreciate a leader’s use of language for rhetorical purposes (usually to argue a point of view or persuade others). You should select the speech or written document carefully to ensure it has enough depth or substance to allow close reading and analysis. You should plan to read or listen to it several times, really looking deeply at how the individual selects words, composes sentences, and organizes thoughts.

Application 3.2 Passive Voice: Try your hand at recognizing and changing the passive voice constructions in the following sentences. First, underline each passive voice construction; then, rewrite the sentence, making it active. Be prepared to discuss why the passive might be the better choice in some of the sentences. 1. An order for 5,000 T-shirts was placed by the Student Association. 2. Requests for class transfers will be accommodated if the request is made in person, the receipt of payment for the class is shown, and a $1 processing fee is paid. 3. Data were selectively collected to allow computation of the unique ratios utilized by “corporate raiders” in assessing a buyout candidate. 4. Detailed information on filling out the form is presented forthwith. 5. It has been decided that your proposal does not follow the RFP guidelines as outlined and, therefore, it must be rejected. 6. To implement the policy, a memorandum will be issued to all management personnel in my division.

Application 3.3 Conciseness: Eliminate the unnecessary words in the following sentences: 1. We are in receipt of your expense report, but due to the fact that it contains errors, we need to discuss it with you as soon as possible. 2. Per your e-mail, we are sending you the report in regard to our analysis of the Patrick Co. reengineering project. 3. Please be advised that, as of January 10, 2009, we will no longer authorize work on the Javia account. 4. To ensure that the optimal conclusions will be drawn, it is absolutely essential for you to ensure the analysts are given any and all data that are necessary for effective completion of the analysis assigned to them to complete.

Application 3.4 Parallelism; Rewrite the following sentences to make them parallel: 1. 2. 3. Highland Services offers friendly,fast responses to all customers,our technicians are professional, and lowest cost is our goal. To persuade your audience, you must: • Consider the audience’s motivation. • Include your bottom-line message early. • The strongest arguments should come first. • Key points summarized at the conclusion. The team gave the following reasons for not completing the project on time: • Unrealistic time allotment. • Major computer problems. • They lacked the necessary data. • The team just did not get along at all.

Application 3.5 Use of Language Overall: After you have read the following e-mail from Mr. Thompson, answer the questions below. Note: Again, this note was actually sent. 1. How do you like the way the e-mail looks—letterhead, formatting, and the like? 2. Does the e-mail’s appearance influence your response to it? How? 3. What mistakes in usage do you notice? 4. Are there any expressions that Mr. Thompson uses that bother you in particular? What are they, and why do they bother you? 5. How do you feel about Mr.Thompson?Do you like him?Do you trust him? Why or why not? 6. What would you change about the way the e-mail was written?