Health care system

I did part of the power point. I will upload the one i have, and you can finish or re-do what I already have. Here is some information for the power point

Health Care in the United States. you can get information online too, also is important to used the information I provided here.

Your PowerPoint presentation should be 15-25 slides and contain enough content to educate but not so much that it overwhelms the viewer. It should include a strong thesis statement supported by research from at least 5 different sources.

Your presentation should include the following:

  1. Title slide: title, your name, title of the course, date.
  2. Body slides addressing: introduction, origin and history of U.S. health care system, today’s health care system, Affordable Care Act, and conclusion/summary. The body of the presentation should include multiple topics. Examples might include: medical advancements, health care spending, health care costs, health insurance, and medical education, professions in health care, health care settings, regulations, former policies, and current policies/laws.
  3. References slide: in APA format.

Health care in the United States evolved from a simple system of home remedies and traveling doctors with little training to a complex, scientific, and technological system. The evolution of the U.S. health care system includes the acceptance of the “germ theory” as the cause of disease, professionalization of doctors, technological advancements in treating disease, the rise of great institutions of medical training and healing, and the introduction of medical insurance.

Medical schools and institutions devoted to medical research emerged. A trend toward physicians needing more training led to the Johns Hopkins University’s medical school’s requirement in 1893 that all medical students arrive with a four-year degree and spend another four years becoming a physician. Earliest efforts of doctors to create a unified professional organization started in the mid-1800s and, in 1846, the American Medical Association (AMA) was established. With little early impact on American medicine, by the next century the AMA had great influence over the politics and practice of medicine.

At the end of the 1920s, the first large medical insurance company, Blue Cross, was established. The 1930s saw rising healthcare costs and an increasing number of health insurance plans. At this time, doctors were paid by a system called “fee-for-service.” Fee-for-service was slowly being replaced by “capitation,” a system that paid doctors a set fee from which they had to care for all of their patients. U.S. government research and health institutions and programs, such as the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control, were established. The 1960s saw the initiation of social programs to aid in the medical care of the aged (Medicare) and poor (Medicaid).

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), commonly called the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or ObamaCare, was signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. Together with the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act amendment, it represents the most significant regulatory renovation of the U.S. health care system since the enactment of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965.

Recent Changes in U.S. Health Care System

One of the biggest changes from the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is that insurance companies can no longer deny coverage to Americans with pre-existing conditions. That’s a game-changing benefit for millions of individuals and families who will find it easier and less expensive to see a doctor and get ongoing medical care.

Current Issues in the Health Care Industry

While extending coverage to millions of uninsured Americans remains an essential policy objective, improving patient care so as to achieve better outcomes at a lower cost is equally important. Problems such as inadequate coordination and communication among providers, misaligned incentives, and poor information management all have a negative impact on the health of patients and can drive up spending on health care unnecessarily. Many of these problems stem from fragmentation, lack of integration, and a focus on particular services rather than the holistic needs of patients, which characterize care in our health system today. Making the needed improvements will require nothing less than a transformation in how patient care is delivered.

  • Affordable Care Act (ACA): The passing and implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is the most significant, but certainly not the only, policy issue to gain national attention, from the industry and public at large.
  • Aging Population: Recent research shows that between now and the year 2030, the number of people who are 55 or older in the U.S. will almost double while the number of those 65 and older will more than double. There will be approximately 178 million older Americans, over 41% of our total population. In the near future, there will be a high demand for health professionals who are skilled in geriatric care to care for these individuals.
  • Shortage of Medical Personnel: The U.S. health care system also has a shortage of medical professionals, such as nurses. Although recruiting more nurses is an option, it is only part of the solution; more teachers are also needed to train nursing students.
  • Uninsured Americans: According to the Census Bureau, approximately 48 million Americans were uninsured as of 2012. The number of uninsured children in 2012 was 6.6 million! Many Americans live in medically underserved areas; communities with few or no health care facilities or clinicians.

Timeline of Medical Innovations and Inventions

Over the past centuries, there have been many medical advancements in health care. Below is a list of a few of these advancements:

  • Anton Van Leeuuenhoek: Microscope
  • Edward Jenner: Smallpox Vaccine
  • Forence Nightingale: Nursing
  • Clara Barton: American Red Cross
  • Wilhelm Roentegen: X-rays
  • Sir Alexander Fleming: Penicillin
  • Watson & Crick: DNA

From penicillin to aspirin, a long list of innovations and inventions have changed the health care system over past centuries. The timeline below highlights the history of medicine and the delivery of health care.

1796 – Edward Jenner develop a method to protect people from smallpox by exposing them to the cowpox virus. the process become know as vaccination from the latin “vacca”for cow. Vaccination with cowpox is made compulsory in Britain in 1853. Jenner is sometimes called the founder father of immunology.

1849– Elizabeth Blackwell is the first woman to receive medical degree (from Geneva Medical – College in Geneva, New York).

1870s– Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch establish the germ theory of disease. According to germ theory, a specific disease is caused by a specific organism. Before this discovery, most doctors believe diseases are caused by spontaneous on generation. In fact, doctors would perform autopsies on people who died of infectious disease and then care for living patients without washing their hands, not realizing that they were therefore transmitting the disease.

1895– German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen discovers X-rays.

1899– Felix Hoffman develops aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid). The juice from willow tree bark had been used as early as 400 BC to relieve pain. 19th century scientist knew that it was the salicylic acid in willow that made it work, but it irritated the lining of the mouth and stomach. Hoffman synthesizes acetyl salicylic acid, developing what is now the most widely used medicine in the world.

1922– Insulin first used to treat diabetes.

1928– Scottish bacteriologist sir Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin.

1945– First vaccination for influenza.

1953– James Watson and Francis Crick at Cambridge University describe the structure of the DNA molecule.

1955- Jonas Salk develops the first vaccine.

1980– W.H.O. (world health Organization) announces that smallpox eradicated.

1983– H.I.V, the virus that cause AIDS, is identified.

1996– Dolly the sheep become the first mammal cloned from an adult cell (died in 2003).

2000– First draft of human genome is announced, the finalized version is released three years later.

2007– Scientists discover how to see human skin cells to create embryonic stem cells.