Photo Manipulation

Need 300-400 words count.

This is a journalism class writing work.

The detailed writing instruction is post in the attached file. Please check.

Photo Manipulation is the act of changing a photograph or video to have a different appearance than it had in its original form. Sometimes, this is perfectly acceptable. Newspapers and magazines crop, enlarge, lighten, and darken photos as a regular professional practice. But if this kind of “altering” of an image would change the public’s perception of “reality,” then we must question whether the manipulation is ethically acceptable. One way to test this ethicality is to ask the viewer/reader if the photograph is plausible. “Or, is the fictional content immediately obvious?” This recognition factor allows for a fairly liberal interpretation of what is misleading. It relies on two tests: (1) whether or not the image is implausible and, thus, readily obvious, and (2) if not, if it is appropriately labeled.

The Qualified Expectation of Reality (QER) Test for Photo-Manipulation Acceptability:

1. The viewfinder test. Is this what the photographer saw in the viewfinder? 2. The photo processing test. Are the changes routine, and not affecting overall content? (Cropping, color correction, sizing, etc.) 3. The technical credibility test. Is it obvious to anyone the photo has been altered, and that the change was made to enhance visual effect? 4. The clear implausibility test. Is the photographed image something that could not occur in reality? (e.g., a photo of the Eiffel Tower wearing a sombrero) A “news” photo image should be able to pass all four elements of the test. A “public relations” or “promotions” photo may not need to pass; however, every situation is different. See pages 296-298 in the text for more detailed information on the QER test