Sociocultural environments


1)     E.C       Re: Topic 7 DQ 1

Hey class,

“A theory is a set of interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that explains or predicts events or situations by specifying relations among variables.” (E-source, n.d.) Theories help public health organization such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention predict when what flu strain might be the next strain we come in contact with or when we have another pandemic. A theory helps us understand why people do what they do and how they develop their habits of health. It is important to look at the way people develop habits of health because that helps us educate them on the best ways to promote healthy living and prevent disease. So, with all of that it becomes full circle. That’s not all a theory dose though. A theory also helps us make what we facts that we already have better because we can study them more. We can take that fact and then add a derivative to it and find out more about that fact. Theories can help us find out so many things.


2)    E. P        Re: Topic 7 DQ 1

The practice of health promotion and illness prevention is supported by several theories and models. To understand and explain health behavior and to guide the selection, development, and implementation of treatments, theories and models are utilized in program design.

It’s crucial to consider a variety of elements when choosing a theory or model to guide health promotion or disease prevention initiatives, including the specific health problem being addressed, the population(s) served, and the circumstances in which the program is being implemented. One or more hypotheses or models are often used in health promotion and illness prevention efforts.

The following are some of the theories and models that are utilized in health promotion and illness prevention programs:

  • Models of the Environment
  • The Model of Health Belief
  • Theory of Social Cognitive Behavior
  • Planned Behavior/Theory of Reasoned Action

Theory of Social Cognitive Behavior

Individual experiences, Other people’s actions, and environmental circumstances all have an impact on individual health behaviors, according to Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Instilling expectancies, self-efficacy, and employing observational learning and other reinforcements to Facilitate behavior change, SCT provides opportunities for social support.

The following are key components of the SCT that are relevant to individual behavior change:

  • Self-efficacy is the notion that one has control over and can carry out an action.
  • Understanding and being able to perform a behavior are both examples of behavioral capability.
  • Expectations: determining how a behavior change will turn out.
  • Expectancies are a way of putting a monetary value on the outcomes of behavior change.
  • Self-control is the ability to regulate and monitor one’s conduct.
  • Observational learning is the process of seeing and seeing others perform or model the desired behavior.
  • Reinforcements are incentives and rewards that urge people to improve their behavior.


Healthy Relationships, a Chattanooga CARES-led small-group intervention for HIV/AIDS patients, is an example of social cognitive theory in action. The program is founded on the Social Cognitive Theory, and it employs skill-building exercises to help participants gain independence and cultivate

Reference :

Farmanova, E., Bonneville, L., & Bouchard, L. (2018). Organizational health literacy: a review of theories, frameworks, guides, and implementation issues. INQUIRY: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing55, 0046958018757848.

E-source. (n.d.). Behavioral & Social Sciences Research. Retrieved May 21, 2021, from

3)  S. T
1 postsRe: Topic 7 DQ 1

Theory is a set of definition that explains situations by specifying relations among variables. Theories are important because they help the scope of practice. Theory are used in health programs to explain the health behavior. Theories are also used to help the public health workers use there interventions. Theories also helps us understand the disease prevention. They also help us know if our health promotion and disease prevention is true or false. it lets us know if people actually researched about these health topics. Theories show us ways to influence and change health behaviors. I think theories are also important because it educated us more about health promotion and disease prevention. Each of the level of prevention has a theory behind it. Without having a theory we would not know if its true or not. We can believe the sources when theres a theory behind it. (2000). Https://Obssr.Od.Nih.Gov/Wp-Content/Uploads/2016/05/Social-and-Behavioral-Theories.Pdf.

4)  R.D

Review the following site on Characteristics of an Effective Health Education Curriculum from the CDC. Choose one characteristic/guidelines and briefly describe how it influences behavior change?


5)   E. C      Re: Topic 7 DQ 2

Hey class,

Each theory used for health promotion and disease prevention have their own factors that make them work. For instance in the ecological model you would have to look at e the intrapersonal factor, such as beliefs, organizational factors, community factors and public policy factors. “Key elements of the Health Belief Model focus on individual beliefs about health conditions, which predict individual health-related behaviors. The model defines the key factors that influence health behaviors as an individual’s perceived threat to sickness or disease (perceived susceptibility), belief of consequence (perceived severity), potential positive benefits of action (perceived benefits), perceived barriers to action, exposure to factors that prompt action (cues to action), and confidence in ability to succeed (self-efficacy).” (Rural Health Information Hub [RHIhub], n.d.) For the stages of change model or transtheoretical model there is six stages including pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance and termination. The social cognitive theory factors include self-efficacy, behavioral capability, expectations, expectancies, self-control, observational learning and reinforcements.


Rural Health Information Hub. (n.d.). The Health Belief Model. Retrieved May 21, 2021, from

6) missing =  S. T   Re: Topic 7 DQ 2

There are a couple of consideration that needs ti be placed when choosing a theory or model in health promotion or disease prevention programs. We first need to look into which population we are addressing. We need to look if they are adults, teenagers or children. Each age group has a different factor we need to consider. Next we need to consider what kind of health problems is being addressed. Every health problem is different  and the information will all be different. Every theory behind each health problem will be different. Lastly we need to know which health promotion or disease prevention program is being implemented. We need to check which program is appropriate for that specific time period. Each health promotion or disease prevention program will have a theory and or a model behind it. A theory or a model will help us understand the health promotion or disease prevention program more in depth. (2018). Https://Www.Ruralhealthinfo.Org/Toolkits/Health-Promotion/2/Theories-and-Models.

7) missing=  Y.Y
1 postsRe: Topic 7 DQ 2

Hi class,

When choosing a theory or model, many factors need to be considered, such as the specific health problem, target population, and program contexts Common theories and models that are used for health promotion and disease prevention programs include ecological models, the health belief model, stages of change model, social cognitive theory, and planned behavior (RHI hub, 2018).

The ecological model highlights people’s interactions with their physical and sociocultural environments. Factors recognized in models include intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional and organizational, community, and public policy. The health belief model is used to explain and predict individual changes in health behaviors. The key factors include individuals; s perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, cues to action, and self-efficacy. The transtheoretical model explains an individual’s readiness to change their behavior. The social cognitive theory’s factor that influences individual health behavior includes personal experiences, the actions of others, and environmental factors. Lastly, the theory of reasoned action suggests that a person’s health is determined by their intention to perform a behavior (RHI hub, 2018)..

RHI hub. (2018, April 30). Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Theories and Models – Rural Toolkit.,health%20promotion%20and%20disease%20prevention.&text=The%20Health%20Belief%20Model,Social%20Cognitive%20Theory

8) missing